Heck Reactions with Ultralow Concentration of Transition Metals under Microwave Irradiation

Hongjun Wang, Haiyang Cheng, Fengyu Zhao
2014 Green and Sustainable Chemistry  
The Heck coupling reactions of aryl halides and olefins were performed under the microwave assistance. Interestingly, the ultralow concentration of transition metals (in ppb) coming from the reactants could catalyze the Heck coupling reactions under microwave irradiation, without addition of any catalysts, ligands and phasetransfer agents. The influences of bases, solvents and temperature were discussed, and the reaction rate was enhanced largely in the mixed solvents of NMP and water due to
more » ... and water due to the solubility of base in water.
doi:10.4236/gsc.2014.41001 fatcat:7cuuxzqlybdmbnh6w2hyyusjxu