The Panama Canal According to the Surveys of Messrs. Wyse And Reclus

Manuel Eissler
1882 Scientific American  
proof of thc advantage in speed, the Lords of the AdmiraIty I tbe Chagres will probably also take place at tbe entrance of to a depth of 6t meters below mean sea level; tben from thi� afterward ordered two more trials to be made with the cas-the canal, namely, a sman accumulation of henvy sands; depth it will slupe down ll. little more perpendicular to the ing and two without, aDel these fully contirmed the first and all that will be required, like at the Suez Canal, will be edge of tbe bottom.
more » ... edge of tbe bottom. results. Though this casing gave a decided advantage, Mr. to occasionally use a dredge to elear away t. bese deposits Above sra level tbe banks of the canal will have 1 of base Griffiths has since found that it was not by any means the when they become embarrassing. This wo rk will offer no for 1 of height in earth, and 1 of base for 10 of height in best form tbat could have been used, for the experiments diffirulties during the greater portion of the yel1r, as t . he rock. that be has since made ha�-e shown that a screw draws in Bay of Limon is quiet, witbout heavy swells 01' turbu- The height of ground to be cut througb above sea level water opposite tbe forward part of tbe periphery for about lent sens. does not permil tue digging 01' a canal sufficiently wide. so half tbe width of the points of tbe blades, and opposite the From the entrance on the Atlantic side up to a distallce of that ships could pass one another at an points or the line. after half drives it out. If this driving-out action is pre-1,280 meters, tbe axis of the canal will be in a straight line ' l It would he , necessary to do tbis to tripie I he saction of the vented, wb ich can be done by fixing a cylindrical ring over From that point a curve will take place to the right basin of the canal, making the work of extraction of rock tbat part, more resistance is offered by tbe water to the pro-5 kilometers in radius, having an angle of curvature of aDel dirt too enormous. peiler, and more thrust is obtained; but if the drawing in 30', and 3,180 meters in lengtb, avoiding tbe small bills Like at Suez, it is tberefore advisable to be content willl action of the front part of tbe periphery is prevented, tbe I with which tbe marsbes of Mindi are studded, and at tbe sucb dimensions as will allow ODe sbip to go througb will! whole of the suction of tbe screw IS concentrated on tbe same time the line of the railroad. For ahout 1 kilo-security, tbe crossing of ships from opposite directions takstern of the ship. Tbis increases the sbip ' s resistance very meter thf; canal takes the bed of the Rio Mindi. ing place in statiolls. much. Hence it is necessary that the casing, if it is to ex-At the 5th kilometer, the canal meets a Iittle hill 4 The bottom of the Suez Canal is 22 meters wide, tbe same tend farther forward tb an the middle of tbe points of the meters high, tbe extremity of the hills of the Loma de dimension as Ihe Panama Cannl. At the water line in the blades of the serew, should be enlarged there. Mindi. narrow sections the Suez Cansl is 58 meters wide, whereas One of the models in the lecture hall was titted witb a At a distance of 6,620 meters commences a curve to the itl the Interoceanie Canal the same will be 50 meters in casing over the screw which, while giving most complete left, with a radius of 3,500 meters, 44°, and 2, 600 meters earth and 28 meters in rock. protection to the pro peller, is better suited for speed tban long, wbich enables the canal to avoid the hills near tbe. From experience gained in the Suez Cunal, tb� dimensions the one wh ich was npplied to the Bruiser. This casing con-station of Gatun and tbe bill of Loma dei Tigre. In tbis are founel sufficient for a canal wilh a single passage. 'The eists of two cylindrical rings, one, which is just large enollgh section the canal crosses tbe Cbagres twice. A cross sectioll width at the sUl'face need not be considered, as it depends for the screw to work in, extending from the middle of tbe establisbed here shows that the canal passes tbl'ou g h the entirely on the nature of the ground; the only important propeller to the rudder post; and the otber, wh ich is about bottom slope of the detached hills of tbe higb Cerro Gatull. quest ion is the width of tbe cannl Lelow tbe keel of ships. one-eighth larger in diameter, is attached hy suitahle fastell-At 13,250 meters commences a curve to'the left of 5,00 0 For the portions dug in earth, the slope of the submerged ings, so tbat its after edge overlaps somewhat the forward meters radins, 41' 5', and 3,580 meters long, crossing the hank is the same as the Suez Canal, but tbe water level will edge of the small ring. By this arran�ement, ttlOugb the Cbagres tbree times in tbis distance. be 8 meters less in width. screw is completely covered, tbe drawing-in action of tbe At 19,440 meters commences a curve to the left of 3,50[) In the rock, where the form of the banks conforms to the forward part of the periphery of the screw is in no way mcters radius, 43 ', and 2,600 meters long. This curve has sbape of the amidship part of avessei, ships 16 meters wide checked, and sbould the forward ring take in more water for object to tbrow as mucb as possible the axis of tbe canal will have a play of 6 meters to tbe right and leU. Such than tbe serew requires, the excess can pass betVfeen the to the nortb without cutting tbe railroad, so that the canal a width is exceptionul, nnd is only reacbcd in large iron rings without causing a resistance to the forward movement can cross the hend of Buhio Soldado, by cutting tbrougb its clad ships. A width of 15 meters is usually met with in of the ship. Radial bars can be tixed in the forward ring so lea�t elevated point, which rises up south of tbe river. cruisers and large government trallsport�. Tbe ordinary as to reacb from the run to tbe outside of the casing at a At 22,040 meters commences a curve to the right of 3,000 breadth of large steamsbips is 13 meters amidship, so that It convenient angle for tuming off floating substances, which meters radius . 38' 4:,' , and 2, 020 meters lrmg, tangent to tbe will leave them from 7 to 8 meters play on each side. would otberwise enter and foul the propelier, and tbe casing railroad at Buella Vista; the canal thus avoids the cutting For a ship to get stuck und er these favorable conditions, mllY be stiffened by fixing struts between tbe rudder-post through of the abrupt bills whicb rise at this point on bolh it would be necessary tbat for some reason or other she and the small ring at the after end. The screws of so me sides of the Chagres. Tbese last two curves cross the Chagres should run ber how into one of the banks, and swing her steam trawlers now being' built for the National Fisbery tive times. stern around so as to strike the other bank lying tben dia Company will be protected in this manner; but when it IJe-In coming out of this pass, one of the most delicate points gonally aeross the caual. Such a case could nevcr arise ex comes generally known tbat by Ihis arrangement I.he screw of tbe trace. the line enters into tbe plain of Frijole. cept tbrougb the utter carelessness and awkwardness of tbe can be protected witbnut loss of speed, which will be proved At 25,420 meters commences a curve to tbe right of 3,500 man at tbe helm in making a false maneuver. This need hy tholle boats, it will be weil worth the consideration of meters radius, 60', and 3,655 meters long, cutting through not be anticipatec!, however, as in crossing tbe canal the shipowners whetber the safely resulting-from its applica-the biIl of Varro Colorado. company ' s pilots will take charge uf ships. tion would not render it worth while for all ships to be At 29, 075 meters commences a curve to the left of 81' 15', A very simple reasoning will establish the fact tbat a ship titted with it. and 4,945 meters long, wbicb goes through the larg-e plain going tbrough the canal can maintain a normal position extending between Frijole and Tahernilla, and for a distance without difficulty. When running tbrough the ship has IlO of 300 meIers will take the bed of the Uhagres; this curve tendency to deviate from tbe straight line. The displace has a radins of 3,500 meters. ment of the sbip causes tbe water to rise forward and pass [Continned from 'lUPl'LE1lENT 347, page 0530.]
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican09091882-5563supp fatcat:au376ccxgrh2djqnfyseqb7q2y