An Uncertainty-Aware Deep Learning Framework for Defect Detection in Casting Products [article]

Maryam Habibpour, Hassan Gharoun, AmirReza Tajally, Afshar Shamsi, Hamzeh Asgharnezhad, Abbas Khosravi, Saeid Nahavandi
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Defects are unavoidable in casting production owing to the complexity of the casting process. While conventional human-visual inspection of casting products is slow and unproductive in mass productions, an automatic and reliable defect detection not just enhances the quality control process but positively improves productivity. However, casting defect detection is a challenging task due to diversity and variation in defects' appearance. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely
more » ... ed in both image classification and defect detection tasks. Howbeit, CNNs with frequentist inference require a massive amount of data to train on and still fall short in reporting beneficial estimates of their predictive uncertainty. Accordingly, leveraging the transfer learning paradigm, we first apply four powerful CNN-based models (VGG16, ResNet50, DenseNet121, and InceptionResNetV2) on a small dataset to extract meaningful features. Extracted features are then processed by various machine learning algorithms to perform the classification task. Simulation results demonstrate that linear support vector machine (SVM) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) show the finest performance in defect detection of casting images. Secondly, to achieve a reliable classification and to measure epistemic uncertainty, we employ an uncertainty quantification (UQ) technique (ensemble of MLP models) using features extracted from four pre-trained CNNs. UQ confusion matrix and uncertainty accuracy metric are also utilized to evaluate the predictive uncertainty estimates. Comprehensive comparisons reveal that UQ method based on VGG16 outperforms others to fetch uncertainty. We believe an uncertainty-aware automatic defect detection solution will reinforce casting productions quality assurance.
arXiv:2107.11643v1 fatcat:v6oyqc2x4jcoxikp5v4fl5jevy