Z-vortex percolation in the electroweak crossover region

M.N. Chernodub, F.V. Gubarev, E.-M. Ilgenfritz, A. Schiller
1998 Physics Letters B  
We study the statistical properties of Z-vortices and Nambu monopoles in the 3D SU(2) Higgs model for a Higgs mass M_H \approx 100 GeV near and above the crossover temperature, where these defects are thermally excited. Although there is no phase transition at that strong selfcoupling, we observe that the Z-vortices exhibit the percolation transition that has been found recently to accompany the first order thermal transition that exists at smaller Higgs mass. Above the crossover temperature
more » ... over temperature percolating networks of Z-vortex lines are ubiquitous, whereas vortices form a dilute gas of closed vortex loops and (Nambu) monopolium states on the low-temperature side of the crossover. The percolation temperature turns out to be roughly independent of the lattice spacing. We find that the Higgs modulus is smaller (the gauge action is larger) inside the vortices, compared to the bulk average. This correlation becomes very strong on the low-temperature side. The percolation transition is a prerequisite of some string mediated baryon number generation scenarios.
doi:10.1016/s0370-2693(98)01347-1 fatcat:5k2a77a6wvcz3gv2wnkw6dwfou