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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/po35dd6orbbazlrto2qf4u5mfy" style="color: black;">IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine</a>
B ridges represent an enormous infrastructure investment across the nation. Maintenance, repair, upgrade, and replacement of these structures are ongoing expenses. Management of these resources is particularly acute today. Many structures, especially those built in the first half of the 20th century, are at or near the end of their service life and are carrying unanticipated traffic loads  . The possibilities of vehicular accidents, earthquakes, and terrorism add to the management<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mim.2003.1200280">doi:10.1109/mim.2003.1200280</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6loqrojrojebdgjfaglgm5adqu">fatcat:6loqrojrojebdgjfaglgm5adqu</a> </span>
more »... Engineers are turning to improved materials and techniques in conjunction with permanent instrumentation to decrease costs and increase service life in both old and new structures. Effective structural instrumentation can be based around fiber-optic systems. Initially a spin-off of optical telecommunication developments, fiber-optic sensing technology has advanced and matured  . Many types of sensors have been developed with various characteristics. Common approaches use interferometry, Bragg gratings, scattering mechanisms, and fluorescence  . They all benefit from the low profile and low loss of optical fiber. The sensors can be placed in otherwise difficult locations, and the information can be sent over long lengths of fiber. The result is a permanent, flexible capability for nondestructive testing. Advanced instrumentation for civil engineering structures addresses a wide range of interdisciplinary issues. Effective implementation integrates sensor technology, advanced signal processing techniques, materials science, and structural mechanics. Then effective implementation requires field demonstrations to develop practical protocols and to establish confidence in long-term system performance. This article: ◗ describes an approach to bridge improvements that uses smart structures ◗ introduces key technologies for health monitoring systems based on fiber optics
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