Activation of Orphan Receptors by the Hormone Relaxin

S. Y. Hsu
2002 Science  
Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor medicinae (Dr. med.) vorgelegt der Medizinischen Fakultät der Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin von Hans-Tilmann Kinkel Spraitbach 1 Hisaw F. L. Experimental relaxation of the pubic ligament of guinea pigs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1926, 23, S. 661-663 2 Hamolsky M. and Sparrow R. C. Influence of relaxin on mammary development in sexually immature female rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1945, 60, S. 8-9 3 Krantz J. C., Bryant H. H. and Carr C. J.
more » ... . H. and Carr C. J. The action of aqueous corpus l u teum extract upon uterine activity. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 1950, 90, S. 372-375 4 Graham E. F. and Dracy A. E. The effect of relaxin and mechanical dilat a tion of the bovine cervix. J. Dairy Sci. 1953, 36, S. 772-777 5 Steinetz BG, Beach VL, Kroc RL, Stasilli NR, Nussbaum RE, Nemith PJ, Dun RK. Bioassay of relaxin using a reference standard: a simple and reliable method utilizing direct measurement of interpubic ligament formation in mice. Endocrinology. 1960 Jul;67:102-15. 6 Sherwood CD, O'Byrne EM. Purification and characterization of porcine relaxin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1974 Jan;160(1):185-96. 7 Sherwood OD. Purification and characterization of rat relaxin. Endocrinology. 1979 Apr;104(4):886-92 8 Schwabe C, McDonald JK, Steinetz BG. Primary structure of the A chain of porcine relaxin Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976 May 17;70(2):397-405. 9 James R, Niall H, Kwok S, Bryand-Greenwood G. Primary structure of porcine relaxin: homology with insulin and related growth factors. Nature. 1977 Jun 9;267(5611):544-6. 10 Sherwood OD, Rosentreter KR, Birkhimer ML. Development of a radioimmunoassay for porcine relaxin using 125I-labeled polytyrosyl-relaxin. Endocrinology. 1975 May;96(5):1106-13. 11 Sherwood OD, Crnekovic VE. Development of a homologous radioimmunoassay for rat relaxin. Endocrinology. 1979 Apr;104(4):893-7 12 O'Byrne EM, Carriere BT, Sorensen L, Segaloff A, Schwabe C, Steinetz BG.J Plasma immunoreactive relaxin levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Nov;47(5):1106-10. 13 Crawford RJ, Hudson P, Shine J, Niall HD, Eddy RL, Shows TB Two human relaxin genes are on chromosome 9 EMBO J. 1984 Oct;3(10):2341-5 14 Hudson P, Haley J, John M, Cronk M, Crawford R, Haralambidis J, Tregear G, Shine J, Niall H. Structure of a genomic clone encoding biologically active human relaxin. Nature. 1983 Feb 17-23;301(5901):628-31. 15 Bathgate RA, Samuel CS, Burazin TC, Layfield S, Claasz AA, Reytomas IG, Dawson NF, Zhao C, Bond C, Summers RJ, Parry LJ, Wade JD, Tregear GW. Human relaxin gene 3 (H3) and the equivalent mouse relaxin (M3) gene. Novel members of the relaxin peptide family. 16 Bullesbach EE, Schwabe C. On the receptor binding site of relaxins. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1988 Nov;32(5):361-7 17 Bullesbach EE, Yang S, Schwabe C. The receptor-binding site of human relaxin II. A dual prong-binding mechanism J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 15;267(32):22957-60 18 Bullesbach EE, Schwabe C The relaxin receptor-binding site geometry suggests a novel gripping mode of interaction. :38-56 21 Gunnersen JM, Roche PJ, Tregear GW, Crawford RJ. Characterization of human relaxin gene regulation in the relaxin-expressing human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP.FGC. J Mol Endocrinol. 1995 Oct;15(2):153-66. 22 Gunnersen JM, Fu P, Roche PJ, Tregear GW. Expression of human relaxin genes: characterization of a novel alternatively-spliced human relaxin mRNA species. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1996 Apr 19;118(1-2):85-94 23 Hansell DJ, Bryant-Greenwood GD, Greenwood FC. Expression of the human relaxin H1 gene in the decidua, trophoblast, and prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Apr;72(4):899-904 24 Tashima LS, Mazoujian G, Bryant-Greenwood GD. Human relaxins in normal, benign and neoplastic breast tissue. J Mol Endocrinol. 1994 Jun;12(3):351-64 25 Dschietzig T, Richter C, Bartsch C, Laule M, Armbruster FP, Baumann G, Stangl K. The pregnancy hormone relaxin is a player in human heart failure. FASEB J. 2001 Oct;15(12):2187-95. 26 Bigazzi M, Nardi E, Bruni P, Petrucci F. Relaxin in human decidua. expression in human ovaries and the predicted structure of a human preprorelaxin by analysis of cDNA clones. EMBO J. 1984 Oct;3(10):2333-9. 28 Sakbun V, Ali SM, Greenwood FC, Bryant-Greenwood GD. Human relaxin in the amnion, chorion, decidua parietalis, basal plate, and placental trophoblast by immunocytochemistry and northern analysis. Evidence for a dual source of relaxin in the pregnant rat: immunolocalization in the corpora lutea and endometrium. Endocrinology. 1992 May;130(5):2985-90. 30 Essig M, Schoenfeld C, D'Eletto RT, Amelar R, Steinetz BG, O'Byrne EM, Weiss G. Relaxin in human seminal plasma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;380:224-30 31 Taylor MJ, Clark CL. Evidence for a novel source of relaxin: atrial cardiocytes. J Endocrinol. 1994 Nov;143(2):R5-8. 32 Osheroff PL, Ho WH. Expression of relaxin mRNA and relaxin receptors in postnatal and adult rat brains and hearts. Localization and developmental patterns. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 15;268(20):15193-9 33 Burazin TC, Bathgate RA, Macris M, Layfield S, Gundlach AL, Tregear GW. Restricted, but abundant, expression of the novel rat gene-3 (R3) relaxin in the dorsal tegmental region of brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Sep;82(6):1553-7 34 Tanaka M, Iijima N, Miyamoto Y, Fukusumi S, Itoh Y, Ozawa H, Ibata Y. Neurons expressing relaxin 3/INSL 7 in the nucleus incertus respond to stress. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Mar;21(6):1659-70. 35 Kompa A.R., Samuel C.S. Summers R.J. Inotropic responses to human gene 2 (B29) relaxin in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI): effect of pertussis toxin British Journal of Pharmacology 2002, 137, 710-8 36 Seki K, Uesato T, Tabei T, Kato K. The secretory patterns of relaxin and human chorionic gonadotropin in human pregnancy. Endocrinol Jpn. 1985 Oct;32(5):741-4. 53 Burazin TC, Johnson KJ, Ma S, Bathgate RA, Tregear GW, Gundlach AL. Localization of LGR7 (relaxin receptor) mRNA and protein in rat forebrain: correlation with relaxin binding site distribution. Ann N Y Acad SciEvidence for local relaxin ligand-receptor expression and function in arteries FASEB J. 2006 Nov;20(13):2352-62. 55 Dschietzig T, Bartsch C, Greinwald M, Baumann G, Stangl K. The pregnancy hormone relaxin binds to and activates the human glucocorticoid receptor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 May;1041:256-71 56 Laura Iris Cosen-Binker, Marcelo Gustavo Binker, Rodica Cosen, Gustavo Negri, Osvaldo Tiscornia Relaxin prevents the development of severe acute pancreatitis World J Gastroenterol 2006 March 14;12(10):1558-1568 57 Braddon SA. Relaxin-dependent adenosine 6',5'-monophosphate concentration changes in the mouse pubic symphysis. Endocrinology. 1978 Apr;102(4):1292-9 58 Cheah SH, Sherwood OD. Target tissues for relaxin in the rat: tissue distribution of injected 125I-labeled relaxin and tissue changes in adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels after in vitro relaxin incubation Endocrinology. 1980 Apr;106(4):1203-9. 59 Sanborn BM, Kuo HS, Weisbrodt NW, Sherwood OD. The interaction of relaxin with the rat uterus. I. Effect on cyclic nucleotide levels and spontaneous contractile activity. Endocrinology. 1980 Apr;106(4):1210-5. 60 Hsu CJ, McCormack SM, Sanborn BM. The effect of relaxin on cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate concentrations in rat myometrial cells in culture. Endocrinology. 1985 May;116(5):2029-35 61 Parsell DA, Mak JY, Amento EP, Unemori EN. Relaxin binds to and elicits a response from cells of the human monocytic cell line, THP-1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 1;271(44):27936-41 62 Toth M, Taskinen P, Ruskoaho H. Relaxin stimulates atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in perfused rat heart. J Endocrinol. 1996 Sep;150(3):487-95 63 Unemori EN, Erikson ME, Rocco SE, Sutherland KM, Parsell DA, Mak J, Grove BH. Relaxin stimulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human endometrial cells in vitro and is associated with menometrorrhagia in women. 70 Bartsch O, Bartlick B, Ivell R, Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitionsynergizes with relaxin signalling to promote decidualisation of human endometrial stromal cells J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 324-334 71 Nguyen BT, Yang L, Sanborn BM, Dessauer CW. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity is required for biphasic stimulation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate by relaxin. Demonstration of a relaxin receptor and relaxin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation in human lower uterine segment fibroblasts. Endocrinology. Relaxin positively regulates matrix metalloproteinase expression in human lower uterine segment fibroblasts using a tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. Endocrinology. 2001 Aug;142(8):3405-13 74 Masini E, Bani D, Bigazzi M, Mannaioni PF, Bani-Sacchi T. Effects of relaxin on mast cells. In vitro and in vivo studies in rats and guinea pigs. J Clin Invest. 1994 Nov;94(5):1974-80 75 Bani-Sacchi T, Bigazzi M, Bani D, Mannaioni PF, Masini E. Relaxin-induced increased coronary flow through stimulation of nitric oxide production. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;116(1):1589-94 76 Bani D, Masini E, Bello MG, Bigazzi M, Sacchi TB. Relaxin activates the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1995 Nov 15;55(22):5272-5 77 Bani D, Failli P, Bello MG, Thiemermann C, Bani Sacchi T, Bigazzi M, Masini E. Relaxin activates the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Hypertension. 1998 Jun;31(6):1240-7 78 Bani D, Baronti R, Vannacci A, Bigazzi M, Sacchi TB, Mannaioni PF, Masini E. Inhibitory effects of relaxin on human basophils activated by stimulation of the Fc epsilon receptor. The role of nitric oxide. Relaxin upregulates the nitric oxide biosynthetic pathway in the mouse uterus. Involvement in the inhibition of myometrial contractility. Endocrinology. 1999;140:4434-4441 80 Nistri S, Bani D. Relaxin receptors and nitric oxide synthases: search for the missing link. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003 Feb 5;1:5. 81 Novak J, Ramirez RJ, Gandley RE, Sherwood OD, Conrad KP. Myogenic reactivity is reduced in small renal arteries isolated from relaxin-treated rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):R349-55 82 Dschietzig T, Bartsch C, Richter C, Laule M, Baumann G, Stangl K. Relaxin, a pregnancy hormone, is a functional endothelin-1 antagonist: attenuation of endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction by stimulation of endothelin type-B receptor expression via ERK-1/2 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Circ Res. 2003 Jan 10;92(1):32-40 83 Zhang Q, Liu SH, Erikson M, Lewis M, Unemori E Relaxin activates the MAP kinase pathway in human endometrial stromal cells. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85(3):536-44. 84 Anand-Ivell R, Heng K, Bartsch O, Ivell R. Relaxin signalling in THP-1 cells uses a novel phosphotyrosine-dependent pathway Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jun 30;272(1-2):1-13. 85 Jeyabalan A, Novak J, Danielson LA, Kerchner LJ, Opett SL, Conrad KP. Essential role for vascular gelatinase activity in relaxin-induced renal vasodilation, hyperfiltration, and reduced myogenic reactivity of small arteries. Circ Res. 2003 Dec 12;93(12):1249-57 86 Ho TY, Bagnell CA. Relaxin induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 through activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human THP-1 cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 May;1041:314-6 87 Miyauchi T, MasakiT Pathophysiology of Endothelin in the cardiovascular System Annual Review of Physiology 61: 391-415 88 Sherwood OD, Downing SJ, Guico-Lamm ML, Hwang JJ, O'Day-Bowman MB, Fields PA. The physiological effects of relaxin during pregnancy: studies in rats and pigs. Oxf Rev Reprod Biol. 1993;15:143-89 89 Sherwood OD. Relaxin's physiological roles and other diverse actions. Endocr Rev. 2004 Apr;25(2):205-34 90 Goldsmith LT, Weiss G, Steinetz BG. Relaxin and its role in pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1995 Mar;24(1):171-86. 91 Kelly AJ, Kavanagh J, Thomas J. Relaxin for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001 92 Weiss G, Goldsmith LT. Relaxin and the cervix. Front Horm Res. 2001;27:105-12. 93 Fevold H. L., Hisaw F. L. and Meyer R. K. The relaxative hormone of the corpus luteum. 1st purif i cation and concentration. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1930, 52, S. 3340-3348 94 Telgmann R, Gellersen B. Marker genes of decidualization: activation of the decidual prolactin gene. Hum Reprod Update. 1998 Sep-Oct;4(5):472-9 95 Bani G, Maurizi M, Bigazzi M, Bani Sacchi T. Effects of relaxin on the endometrial stroma. Studies in mice. Biol Reprod. 1995 Aug;53(2):253-62 96 Bani G, Bigazzi M, Bani D. Effects of relaxin on the mouse mammary gland. I. The myoepithelial cells. J Endocrinol Invest. 1985 Jun;8(3):207-15 97 Bianchi S, Bani G, Bigazzi M. Effects of relaxin on the mouse mammary gland. III. The fat pad. J Endocrinol Invest. 1986 Apr;9(2):153-60 98 Bani G, Bigazzi M, Bani D. The effects of relaxin on the mouse mammary gland. II. The epithelium. J Endocrinol Invest. 1986 Apr;9(2):145-52 99 Too CK, Bryant-Greenwood GD, Greenwood FC. Relaxin increases the release of plasminogen activator, collagenase, and proteoglycanase from rat granulosa cells in vitro. Endocrinology. 1984 Sep;115(3):1043-50 100 Unemori EN, Amento EP. Relaxin modulates synthesis and secretion of procollagenase and collagen by human dermal fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jun 25;265(18): 101 Unemori EN, Pickford LB, Salles AL, Piercy CE, Grove BH, Erikson ME, Amento EP. Relaxin induces an extracellular matrix-degrading phenotype in human lung fibroblasts in vitro and inhibits lung fibrosis in a murine model in vivo.
doi:10.1126/science.1065654 pmid:11809971 fatcat:iyiuurhlojh2hliuxytzchd5ky