Ultrasound-Stimulated Microbubbles Enhance Radiosensitization of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Han Deng, Yanxia Cai, Qian Feng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wenhong Tian, Shifeng Qiu, Yuegang Wang, Zhiliang Li, Juefei Wu
2018 Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry  
Background/Aims: Recent studies indicate that therapies targeting the vasculature can significantly sensitize tumors to radiation. Ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMBs) are regarded as a promising radiosensitizer. In this study, we investigated the effect of USMBs on the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to radiation. Methods: Human NPC (CNE-2) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to radiation (0, 2, and 8 Gy) alone or in combination with
more » ... bination with USMBs. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured with the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The angiogenic activity of HUVECs was detected using matrigel tubule formation. The in vitro effects induced by these treatments were confirmed in vivo with xenograft models of CNE-2 cells in nude mice by examining vascular integrity using color Doppler flow imaging and cell survival using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the in vivo and in vitro expressions of angiotensin II (ANG II) and its receptor (AT1R) were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively. With CNE-2 cells and HUVECs transfected with control, ANG II, or AT1R, perindopril (an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme) and candesartan (an inhibitor of AT1R) were used to verify the role of ANG II and AT1R in the radiosensitivity of tumor and endothelial cells by USMBs, by determining cell viability and apoptosis and angiogenic activity. Results: In the NPC xenografts, USMBs slightly reduced blood flow and CD34 expression, increased tumor cell death and ANG II and AT1R expression, and significantly enhanced the effects of radiation. With CNE-2 cells and HUVECs, the USMBs further enhanced the inhibition of tumor cell viability and endothelial tubule formation and further enhanced the increase in ANG II and AT1R due to radiation. Furthermore, perindopril and candesartan significantly enhanced the Deng et al.: Microbubble Enhanced the Radiosensitization of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma inhibitory effect of radiation and USMBs on tumor cell growth and angiogenesis in vitro. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time that USMB exposure can significantly enhance the destructive effect on NPC of radiation, and this effect might be further increased by ANG II and AT1R inhibition. Our findings suggest that USMBs can be used as a promising sensitizer of radiotherapy to treat NPC, and the clinical effect might be increased by ANG II and AT1R inhibition.
doi:10.1159/000492263 pmid:30071515 fatcat:wm65miba6zaxvcon4cdfxy5hoa