Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction with small molecules in intervertebral disc aging and degeneration

Morteza Saberi, Xiaolei Zhang, Ali Mobasheri
2021 GeroScience  
AbstractThe prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) including osteoarthritis (OA) and low back pain (LBP) in aging societies present significant cost burdens to health and social care systems. Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by disc dehydration, anatomical alterations, and extensive changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, is an important contributor to LBP. IVD cell homeostasis can be disrupted by mitochondrial dysfunction.
more » ... ia are the main source of energy supply in IVD cells and a major contributor to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, mitochondria represent a double-edged sword in IVD cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction results in oxidative stress, cell death, and premature cell senescence, which are all implicated in IVD degeneration. Considering the importance of optimal mitochondrial function for the preservation of IVD cell homeostasis, extensive studies have been done in recent years to evaluate the efficacy of small molecules targeting mitochondrial dysfunction. In this article, we review the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction, aiming to highlight the role of small molecules and a selected number of biological growth factors that regulate mitochondrial function and maintain IVD cell homeostasis. Furthermore, molecules that target mitochondria and their mechanisms of action and potential for IVD regeneration are identified. Finally, we discuss mitophagy as a key mediator of many cellular events and the small molecules regulating its function.
doi:10.1007/s11357-021-00341-1 pmid:33634362 pmcid:PMC8110620 fatcat:ve25ccdkuzhgtcn4y4434nlfvu