Controlar os parâmetros de assamento (tempo, temperatura, umidade) pode permitir a melhoria de algumas propriedades físicas e nutricionais de pães
Palavras-chave: volume específico, perda de água, gelatinização do amido, minerais, digestibilidade relativa da proteína, ácido fólico, oxalato. BREDARIOL, P. Controlling the baking parameters (time, temperature, humidity) may allow the improvement of some physical and nutritional properties of breads. 2019. 97f. ABSTRACT Bread is one of the most consumed foods in many countries around the world. During its process, several parameters can influence the physical characteristics of the final
... s of the final products, as well as the nutritional aspects. The process parameters refer to the different variables involved in the stages of dough mixing, fermentation and bread baking, the latter being the step which represents the highest energy costs of production. In this way, the control of the baking conditions such as time, temperature and relative humidity can allow a control of the final bread properties and, at the same time, optimize the energy costs involved in the bread production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of baking parameters, time, temperature and steam introduction at the beginning of baking on the technological properties and nutritional aspects of bread. Different baking conditions were used in order to produce breads with distinct final characteristics. The technological evaluation of bread was determined through the following analyzes: visual aspects of bread crust, crust and crumb color parameters, final height of bread, water loss during baking, specific volume and crumb hardness. Local temperature acquisition along the baking were performed in order to simulate the rate of temperature increase for each condition evaluated during the analyzes by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In relation to nutrients, stability during baking was evaluated for folic acid and mineral, and the relative protein digestibility, as well as the presence of oxalate. The results indicated that the increase in time or temperature and the introduction of steam during the beginning of the baking cause changes in both the physical and nutritional aspects of breads. The heating rate increased with the elevation of the baking temperature; in the crumb, it was higher for baking with steam, and for the crust it was higher in the baking without steam. Even presenting different heating rates, some conditions can produce bread with similar technological aspects, which can be used as a strategy in the production of breads. On the other hand, starch gelatinization was unique for each baking condition. In relation to nutritional aspects, it is possible to preserve the stability of folic acid and minerals as well as to increase the digestibility of the protein or to reduce the content of oxalate, by controlling the time, temperature and humidity in the oven during the baking. Therefore, it could be concluded that, controlling the baking parameters (time, temperature, humidity) allows to improve some physical and nutritional properties of breads, in order to obtain breads with the desired physical characteristics and to preserve the nutritional quality.