Age of Sex-Determining Mechanisms in Vertebrates: Distribution of differentiation patterns indicates the evolutionary path of genes and chromosomes

E. Witschi
1959 Science  
keeping a meticulous record of stratification, modern archeology has means by which to tell the date of plant material, and by specialization the botanist will, in the long run, learn to identify the battered remains of the plants. Thus, by joining hands, the two sciences establish a third, paleoethnobotany, which endeavors to help delineate man's victories and defeats in his battle against nature for survival and multiplication, and to unravel the complicated history of the plants upon which
more » ... plants upon which even modern civilization is ultimately dependent. References and Notes 1. R. J. Braidwood, Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society (1955), p. 311. 2. J. Iversen, Danmarks Geol. Undersogelse 11 (1941), p. 66. 3. Primary domestication involves specific and conscious attention to a wild plant in its natural habitat; secondary domestication is the segregation, for intentional cultivation, of a weed growing in cultivated soil which already unintentionally has been subjected to a process of selection through being reaped along with the intended crop. In the cases of rye and oats, this segregation occurred far from their centers of natural distribution; by comparison, barley is secondary only insofar as human intention is concerned, not in respect to habitat. Barley might have been selected for domestication in any place from Central Asia to the Atlantic, but since we know of no ancient culture based upon barley alone, and since evidence of domesticated wheat distinguishes that portion of the wild-barley area in which incipient agriculture has been established archeologically, the conclusion is inevitable that wheat was the species that caused man to attempt plant domestication in the first place. keeping a meticulous record of stratification, modern archeology has means by which to tell the date of plant material, and by specialization the botanist will, in the long run, learn to identify the battered remains of the plants. Thus, by joining hands, the two sciences establish a third, paleoethnobotany, which endeavors to help delineate man's victories and defeats in his battle against nature for survival and multiplication, and to unravel the complicated history of the plants upon which even modern civilization is ultimately dependent. References and Notes 1. R. J. Braidwood, Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society (1955), p. 311. 2. J. Iversen, Danmarks Geol. Undersogelse 11 (1941), p. 66. Primary domestication involves specific and conscious attention to a wild plant in its natural habitat; secondary domestication is the segregation, for intentional cultivation, of a weed growing in cultivated soil which already unintentionally has been subjected to a process of selection through being reaped along with the intended crop. In the cases of rye and oats, this segregation occurred far from their centers of natural distribution; by comparison, barley is secondary only insofar as human intention is concerned, not in respect to habitat. Barley might have been selected for domestication in any place from Central Asia to the Atlantic, but since we know of no ancient culture based upon barley alone, and since evidence of domesticated wheat distinguishes that portion of the wild-barley area in which incipient agriculture has been established archeologically, the conclusion is inevitable that wheat was the species that caused man to attempt plant domestication in the first place. R. J. Braidwood, Bull. Am. Schools Oriental Research' 124 (1951).
doi:10.1126/science.130.3372.372 pmid:13675759 fatcat:mtayarr7v5djnepra7xcwoss5y