Loss of HRD1-Mediated Protein Degradation Causes Amyloid Precursor Protein Accumulation and Amyloid- Generation

M. Kaneko, H. Koike, R. Saito, Y. Kitamura, Y. Okuma, Y. Nomura
2010 Journal of Neuroscience  
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a system by which proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retrotranslocated to the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. HRD1 is expressed in brain neurons and acts as an ERAD ubiquitin ligase. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is processed into amyloid-␤ peptides (A␤s) that form plaque deposits in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We found significantly decreased HRD1 protein levels in
more » ... cerebral cortex of AD patients. HRD1 colocalized with APP in brain neurons and interacted with APP through the proline-rich region of HRD1. HRD1 promoted APP ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in decreased generation of A␤. Furthermore, suppression of HRD1 expression induced APP accumulation that led to increased production of A␤ associated with ER stress. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that suppression of HRD1 expression inhibited APP aggresome formation, resulting in apoptosis. In addition, we found that the ATF6-and XBP1-induced upregulation of ERAD led to APP degradation and reduced A␤ production. These results suggest that the breakdown of HRD1-mediated ERAD causes A␤ generation and ER stress, possibly linked to AD.
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2422-09.2010 pmid:20237263 fatcat:ajtypxlwgbdsdl7xf7ce74eaqe