Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society
A. GENERAL, including the Anatomy and Physiology of the Phanerogamia. a. Anatomy. (1) Cell-structure and Protoplasm. Irritability of Protoplasm.*-Herr E. Strasburger gives a rbumk of all that is at present known with regard to the morphological structure and the physiological properties of vegetable protoplasm, and the part which it plays in the phenomena of irritability in the vegetable kingdom. Plasmogenous Vacuoles in the Nucleole of the End0sperm.t-M. C. Decagny finds similar phenomena in
... ilar phenomena in the nucleole of the endosperm of Phaseolus to that which he has already recorded in the case cf Spirogyra. The mode of observation was by hardening ovules from 1 to 5 mm. in length in absolute alcohol or Flemming's solution, colouring by picrocarminate or the violet mixture obtained with the aid of fuchsin or methyl-green, and then mounting in glycerin with the addition of the same staining reagents. By this means plasmogenous vacuoles could be detected, containing in solution a substance which solidifies in contact with the nuclear sap and the cell-sap. When this substance solidifies in the form of a membrane, it exhibits the homogeneity, transparency, and index of refraction of the nuclear membrane, of the membranous layer of the protoplasm, and of the achromatic filaments which arise from the indirect division of the nucleus. I t follows from this that the origin of the plasmic substances such as the nuclear membrane, the achromatic filaments, and those which present similar properties and reIctions, must be sought for in the nucleole, and therefore in the nucleus, r;ot in the cytoplasm. (2) Other Cell-contents (including Secretions). Substances which accompany ChloroDhyll in Leaves.$--M. A. fitard records the elimination of the following substances in leaves. When the leaves of the vine are treated with carbon disulphide, a portion of the substances thus extracted is soluble, and a portion insoluble, in alcohol. The soluble portion yields a substance with tho composition C1,H340, which he calls vifol, and a substance soluble in ether, a diatomic alcohol to which he gives the name oito9lyco1, with the empirical formula C23H4402, and probably the true composition C"B"(OH),. This is accompanied by a triatomic alcohol, cenocarpol. A similar treatment of the leaves of lucerne yielded a monatomic alcohol medicngol, with the formula C"H"OH. From Bryonia dioica a hydrocarbon C"H4, was obtained, which the author calls bryonane. The mixture of these, together with crystalline paraffins, probably constitute the substances to which the term wax of leaves has been applied.