Leucokinin and Associated Neuropeptides Regulate Multiple Aspects of Physiology and Behavior in Drosophila

Dick R. Nässel
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Leucokinins (LKs) constitute a family of neuropeptides identified in numerous insects and many other invertebrates. LKs act on G-protein-coupled receptors that display only distant relations to other known receptors. In adult Drosophila, 26 neurons/neurosecretory cells of three main types express LK. The four brain interneurons are of two types, and these are implicated in several important functions in the fly's behavior and physiology, including feeding, sleep–metabolism interactions,
more » ... pendent memory formation, as well as modulation of gustatory sensitivity and nociception. The 22 neurosecretory cells (abdominal LK neurons, ABLKs) of the abdominal neuromeres co-express LK and a diuretic hormone (DH44), and together, these regulate water and ion homeostasis and associated stress as well as food intake. In Drosophila larvae, LK neurons modulate locomotion, escape responses and aspects of ecdysis behavior. A set of lateral neurosecretory cells, ALKs (anterior LK neurons), in the brain express LK in larvae, but inconsistently so in adults. These ALKs co-express three other neuropeptides and regulate water and ion homeostasis, feeding, and drinking, but the specific role of LK is not yet known. This review summarizes Drosophila data on embryonic lineages of LK neurons, functional roles of individual LK neuron types, interactions with other peptidergic systems, and orchestrating functions of LK.
doi:10.3390/ijms22041940 pmid:33669286 fatcat:cshelz3owbeipbp2uvp6kcn4w4