Continuous-time Random Walks for the Numerical Solution of Stochastic Differential Equations
This paper introduces time-continuous numerical schemes to simulate stochastic differential equations (SDEs) arising in mathematical finance, population dynamics, chemical kinetics, epidemiology, biophysics, and polymeric fluids. These schemes are obtained by spatially discretizing the Kolmogorov equation associated with the SDE in such a way that the resulting semi-discrete equation generates a Markov jump process that can be realized exactly using a Monte Carlo method. In this construction
... spatial increment of the approximation can be bounded uniformly in space, which guarantees that the schemes are numerically stable for both finite and long time simulation of SDEs. By directly analyzing the generator of the approximation, we prove that the approximation has a sharp stochastic Lyapunov function when applied to an SDE with a drift field that is locally Lipschitz continuous and weakly dissipative. We use this stochastic Lyapunov function to extend a local semimartingale representation of the approximation. This extension permits to analyze the complexity of the approximation. Using the theory of semigroups of linear operators on Banach spaces, we show that the approximation is (weakly) accurate in representing finite and infinite-time statistics, with an order of accuracy identical to that of its generator. The proofs are carried out in the context of both fixed and variable spatial step sizes. Theoretical and numerical studies confirm these statements, and provide evidence that these schemes have several advantages over standard methods based on time-discretization. In particular, they are accurate, eliminate nonphysical moves in simulating SDEs with boundaries (or confined domains), prevent exploding trajectories from occurring when simulating stiff SDEs, and solve first exit problems without time-interpolation errors.