Pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury: inflammatory and ultrastructural analyses
Journal of applied physiology
Pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury: inflammatory and ultrastructural analyses. To test whether pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury (ALI) of identical mechanical compromise would express diverse morphological patterns and immunological pathways. For this purpose, a model of pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) ALI with similar functional changes was developed and pulmonary morphology (light and electron microscopy), cytokines levels, and neutrophilic infiltration in the
... ronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), elastic and collagen fiber content in the alveolar septa, and neutrophil apoptosis in the lung parenchyma were analyzed. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. In control groups, saline was intratracheally (it, 0.05 ml) instilled and intraperitoneally (ip, 0.5 ml) injected, respectively. In the ALIp and ALIexp groups, mice received E. coli lipopolysaccharide (10 g it and 125 g ip, respectively). The changes in lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and in static elastance, alveolar collapse, and cell content in lung tissue were similar in the ALIp and ALIexp groups. The ALIp group presented a threefold increase in KC (murine function homolog to IL-8) and IL-10 levels in the BALF in relation to ALIexp, whereas IL-6 level showed a twofold increase in ALIp. Neutrophils in the BALF were more frequent in ALIp than in ALIexp. ALIp showed more extensive injury of alveolar epithelium, intact capillary endothelium, and apoptotic neutrophils, whereas the ALIexp group presented interstitial edema and intact type I and II cells and endothelial layer. In conclusion, given the same pulmonary mechanical dysfunction independently of the etiology of ALI, insult in pulmonary epithelium yielded more pronounced inflammatory responses, which induce ultrastructural morphological changes.