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AbstractSubanesthetic ketamine evokes rapid antidepressant effects in human patients that persist long past ketamine's chemical half-life of ~2 h. Ketamine's sustained antidepressant action may be due to modulation of cortical plasticity. We find that ketamine ameliorates depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in adult mice, and this depends on parvalbumin-expressing (PV) neuron-directed neuregulin-1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling. Ketamine rapidly downregulates NRG1 expression in PVdoi:10.1038/s41398-021-01255-4 pmid:33627623 fatcat:tdteq2oyq5dyhogp6jotjw24gm