Hygienic assessment of the impact of 5G/IMT-2020 communication networks on public health (literature review)
Hygiene and Sanitation
The program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" approved the Concept for the creation and development of 5G / IMT-2020 networks. The development of 5G communications will significantly impact the implementation of many innovative projects and initiatives: the Smart City project, Unmanned Transport, etc. Along with significant technical advantages compared to previous generations of communication (2G, 3G, 4G), 5G technology has completely different emitting characteristics: more emitting
... elements, signal modulation, three-dimensional beam, the ability to control the beam, SHF (ultra-high) and EHF (extremely high) radio frequency ranges and centimetre and millimetre wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, it is becoming an especially urgent problem to ensure exposure to the human body of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields of the radio frequency range (30 kHz-300 GHz). The authors searched the literature on the biological effects of 5G cellular communications and electromagnetic radiation in the centimetre and millimetre ranges using the appropriate keywords in PubMed search engines, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, CyberLeninka, RSCI and others. There is currently tentative and conflicting evidence on the impact of 5G. The rapidly growing density of wireless devices and antennas (considering future 5G networks) increases the public health risk from exposure to RF EMFs as the penetration depth for 5G EHF radiation is only a few millimetres. At these wavelengths, resonance phenomena are possible at the cellular and molecular levels, particularly concerning stimulating SHF and EHF oxidative processes and damaging DNA. The influence of the millimetre range of RF-EMF is poorly understood; oncological and non-oncological (impact on the reproductive, immune systems, etc.) effects are possible. Using numerical simulation methods of EMF radiation resonances on insects, Thielens A et al., 2018, found a significant overall increase in the absorbed RF power at a frequency of 6 GHz and higher than a frequency below 6 GHz.