Lower Bounds on Stabilizer Rank [article]

Shir Peleg, Amir Shpilka, Ben Lee Volk
The stabilizer rank of a quantum state $ψ$ is the minimal $r$ such that $\left| ψ\right \rangle = \sum_{j=1}^r c_j \left|φ_j \right\rangle$ for $c_j \in \mathbb{C}$ and stabilizer states $φ_j$. The running time of several classical simulation methods for quantum circuits is determined by the stabilizer rank of the $n$-th tensor power of single-qubit magic states. We prove a lower bound of $Ω(n)$ on the stabilizer rank of such states, improving a previous lower bound of $Ω(\sqrt{n})$ of Bravyi,
more » ... mith and Smolin (arXiv:1506.01396). Further, we prove that for a sufficiently small constant $δ$, the stabilizer rank of any state which is $δ$-close to those states is $Ω(\sqrt{n}/\log n)$. This is the first non-trivial lower bound for approximate stabilizer rank. Our techniques rely on the representation of stabilizer states as quadratic functions over affine subspaces of $\mathbb{F}_2^n$, and we use tools from analysis of boolean functions and complexity theory. The proof of the first result involves a careful analysis of directional derivatives of quadratic polynomials, whereas the proof of the second result uses Razborov-Smolensky low degree polynomial approximations and correlation bounds against the majority function.
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2106.03214 fatcat:ppy3ppuytfbqrhfisriwbphera