A Review on Different Approaches for Improving Cell Infiltration in Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds
In recent years, electrospinning that has the capability to form polymeric nano-/microfibers has gained substantial attention for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. The morphological resemblance to native extracellular matrix (ECM), high surface to volume ratio, high porosity, and pore interconnectivity are amongst the brilliant features of electrospun structures. The high surface area to volume ratio and interconnected pores of these fibrous meshes confer desirable cell attachment
... cell attachment and growth. However, due to small pore sizes and high packing density of electrospun nanofibers, cell penetration into a conventional electrospun mat is completely restrained. Scarce cell infiltration in turn prohibit cell migration into internal parts of the scaffold, cause inhomogeneous cell distribution throughout the structure, limit vascularization, and impede tissue ingrowth. In fact, traditional electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in practice act as two-dimensional (2D) surfaces rather than three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Thus far, a number of approaches have been employed to solve this problem, which range from simple variations in electrospinning parameters to intricate post-processing modifications. Some efforts directly manipulate the electrospun mat characteristics to enhance cell penetration, while others combine cells with scaffolds or encourage cells to migrate into internal parts with different stimuli. In the present study, we have attempted to provide an overview of different approaches offered for improving cell infiltration in electrospun scaffolds.