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Research in the field of electronic signature confirmation has been active for some 20 years now. Unfortunately present certificate-based solutions also come from that age when no-one knew about online data transmission. The official standardized X.509 framework also depends heavily on offline operations, one of the most complicated ones being certificate revocation handling. This is done via huge Certificate Revocation Lists which are both inconvenient and expencive. Several improvements toarXiv:cs/9909012v1 fatcat:txcic2tccfathpo4i4zdzu36ea