Adult Neurogenesis in the Crayfish Brain: The Hematopoietic Anterior Proliferation Center Has Direct Access to the Brain and Stem Cell Niche

Paula Grazielle Chaves da Silva, Jeanne L. Benton, David C. Sandeman, Barbara S. Beltz
2013 Stem Cells and Development  
Neuronal stem cells residing in a niche on the surface of the adult crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) brain are not selfrenewing. However, the neuronal precursors in the niche are not depleted despite continued neurogenesis and the exit of precursor cells from the niche throughout the organism's life. The neurogenic niche is therefore not a closed system, and we have previously proposed that the stem cell pool is replenished from the hematopoietic system. Noonin et al. (2012) demonstrated that the
more » ... hematopoietic system in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus includes an anterior proliferation center (APC) lying near the brain; they suggest that multipotent stem cells are concentrated in this region, and that the APC may provide neuronal stem cells for adult neurogenesis. The present study extends this work by describing the location and cellular organization of hematopoietic tissues in P. clarkii. We find that the APC lies within the cor frontale, or auxiliary heart, which pumps hemolymph to the brain and eyes through the cerebral and ophthalmic arteries, respectively. Vascular extensions of the cerebral artery converge on the neurogenic niche. APC cells lie in layered sheets within the cor frontale and form rosettelike structures reminiscent of stem cells in other developing tissues. We confirm here that APC cells in P. clarkii have characteristics of multipotent stem cells, and that their location within the cor frontale allows direct access to regions in the central nervous system in which adult neurogenesis occurs.
doi:10.1089/scd.2012.0583 pmid:23181901 fatcat:kqeqhiqjtbfudei3hacdhpjc3e