The effect of time of night on wake–dream continuity

Josie E. Malinowski, Caroline L. Horton
2014 Dreaming (New York, N.Y.)  
Suggested running head: Time of night effects on continuity Mailing address: [see cover letter] Keywords: The Continuity Hypothesis; wake-dream incorporations; memory consolidation; memory integration; time of night Participants were recruited via a participation credit scheme at Leeds Metropolitan University, in which undergraduate psychology students participate for course credits; and via opportunity sample. 16 participants (11 female, 5 male; 7 Leeds Metropolitan University undergraduates,
more » ... acquaintances of the researchers) were recruited, with an age range of 19 to 54 years of age (M = 27, SD = 9.00). 51 dreams were collected (per participant: M = 3.19, SD = 2.01) over two nights. Participants were recruited on the basis of their having good general health, being over 18 years of age, and not currently suffering nor historically having suffered from any sleep disorders or health problems that may affect sleep (e.g. depression), or any health problems that might worsen as a result of being awoken several times during the course of two nights' sleep (e.g. insomnia). -Design Dreams were collected from participants awoken at certain intervals after they had retired to bed: in early-night sleep (between 0.5 and 2.0 hours); in early-mid-night sleep (between 2.5 and 4.0 hours); in mid-late-night sleep (between 4.5 and 6.0 hours); and in late-night sleep (between 6.5 and 8.0). Participants also slept attached to a home-based sleep-monitoring device called REMview, to track their stages of sleep. REMview is identical in essence to the Nightcap, which has been demonstrated to be able to detect REM and NREM (Stages 1, 2, or 3) (Aijilore et al., 1995), using an eyelid sensor to measure eye movements and a head sensor to measure body movements. However, due to equipment problems, stages of sleep were not always recorded accurately, and so the focus of the results here is the time of night differences. (For more details on this methodology, consult Malinowski,
doi:10.1037/a0037817 fatcat:uczb2zeryrbjvbb7ydgaj554km