Toxicity Analysis and Cry Gene Profiling of Bacillus Thuringiensis Isolated from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu State, India

A. Ramalakshmi, P. Annakodi, V. Udayasurian, V. Balasubramani
<span title="2018-05-01">2018</span> <i title="Indian National Science Academy"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jwvalmpmyrg6vku2tgyjjhdqdq" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy</a> </i> &nbsp;
There are various evidences of calculation as an ancient activity [Tedre, 2014] that dates back to Babylonian days used for varieties of navigational, astronomical and other day-to-day needs. In fact, there were methods of storing like Quipu of Incas and tools for calculating like Chinese counting rods. Computing as a discipline is a recent one even though the practice of using mechanical aids for calculation can have various dates based on the perspective of the reader like Blaise Pascal in
more &raquo; ... 0s, George Boole in the 1800s or the Babylonian dates of 1800BCE. It is only in the early 20 th century a firm foundation of Computing was laid while attempting to solve the problem referred to as the Entscheidungsproblem 1 posed by David Hilbert and Wilhelm Ackermann in 1928. Alan M. Turing -British mathematician established that there is no method to solve this problem through a formal definition of an abstract machine, now referred to as Turing Machine. This seminal work [Turing, 1937] laid the foundation of computing. It must be mentioned that while other contemporary logicians like Alonzo Church, Emil L. Post, and A. A. Markov had proposed logical formalisms to show that the Entscheidungsproblem was not solvable and in fact, it was later shown that these formalisms turned out to be equivalent to Turing Machine's. However, it was Turing's work that gave a firm momentum to the computing field from multiple dimensions. This becomes evident from the quote due to Kurt Gödel 2 from his Gibbs Lecture: "the greatest improvement was made possible through the precise definition of the concept of finite procedure, which plays a decisive role in these results. There are several different ways of arriving at such a definition, which, however all lead to exactly the same concept. The most satisfactory way, in my opinion, is that of reducing the concept of finite procedure to that of a machine with a finite number of parts, as has been done by the British mathematician Turing". Furthermore, Gödel accepted the earlier thesis of Church only after Turing's work. The thesis since then comes to be known as Church-Turing thesis. The thesis, which had a far-reaching impact on this field, is informally stated below: Any algorithmic problem for which an algorithm can be found in any programming language on any computer (existing or that can be built in future) requiring unbounded amounts of resource is also solvable by a Turing Machine.
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