Unravelling the Differential Host Immuno-Inflammatory Responses to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Infections in Sepsis

Ena Gupta, Sanni Kumar, Vijay Kumar Srivastava, Juhi Saxena, Arif Jamal Siddiqui, Sudhir Mehta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti
2022 Vaccines  
Previous reports from our lab have documented dysregulated host inflammatory reactions in response to bacterial infections in sepsis. Both Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) play a significant role in the development and progression of sepsis by releasing several virulence factors. During sepsis, host cells produce a range of inflammatory responses including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitrite generation, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
more » ... ease, and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The current study was conducted to discern the differences in host inflammatory reactions in response to both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus along with the organ dysfunction parameters in patients of sepsis. We examined 60 ICU sepsis patients identified based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA II) scores. Pathogen identification was carried out using culture-based methods and gene-specific primers by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Samples of blood from healthy volunteers were spiked with E. coli (GNB) and S. aureus (GPB). The incidence of NETs formation, iNOS expression, total nitrite content, and pro-inflammatory cytokine level was estimated. Prevalence of E. coli, A. baumannii (both GNB), S. aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (both GPB) was found in sepsis patients. Augmented levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS expression, total nitrite, the incidence of NETs, and proinflammatory cytokines, during spiking, were found in response to S. aureus infections in comparison with E. coli infections. These inflammatory mediators were found to be positively correlated with organ dysfunction in both GN and GP infections in sepsis patients. Augmented host inflammatory response was generated in S. aureus infections as compared with E. coli.
doi:10.3390/vaccines10101648 fatcat:g6bnjyvonbflnhwyusy4rtdoou