The Hatano-Sasa equality: Transitions between steady states in a granular gas

Anne Mounier, Antoine Naert
2012 Europhysics letters  
An experimental study is presented, about transitions between Non-Equilibrium Steady States (NESS) in a dissipative medium. The core device is a small rotating blade that imposes cycles of increasing and decreasing forcings to a granular gas, shaken independently. The velocity of this blade is measured, subject to the transitions imposed by the periodic torque variation. The Hatano-Sasa equality, that generalises the second principle of thermodynamics to NESS, is verified with a high accuracy
more » ... few 10^-3), at different variation rates. Besides, it is observed that the fluctuating velocity at fixed forcing follows a generalised Gumbel distribution. A rough evaluation of the mean free path in the granular gas suggests that it might be a correlated system, at least partially.
doi:10.1209/0295-5075/100/30002 fatcat:3d4cjyis5vh5lerdsbus5kuttq