Smart City and High-Tech Urban Interventions Targeting Human Health: An Equity-Focused Systematic Review

Adrian Buttazzoni, Marta Veenhof, Leia Minaker
2020 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  
Urban infrastructure systems responsible for the provision of energy, transportation, shelter, and communication to populations are important determinants of health and health equity. The term "smart city" has been used synonymously with other terms, such as "digital city", "sustainable city", and "information city", even though definitional distinctions exist between terms. In this review, we use "smart cities" as a catch-all term to refer to an emerging concept in urban governance practice
more » ... scholarship that has been increasingly applied to achieve public health aims. The objective of this systematic review was to document and analyze the inclusion of equity considerations and dimensions (i.e., a measurement, analytical, or dialectical focus on systematic disparities in health between groups) in smart city interventions aimed to improve human health and well-being. Systematic searches were carried out in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychological Information Database (PsycINFO), the PubMed database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Elsevier's database Scopus, and Web of Science, returning 3219 titles. Ultimately, 28 articles were retained, assessed, and coded for their inclusion of equity characteristics using the Cochrane PROGRESS-Plus tool (referring to (P) place of residence, (R) race, (O) occupation, (G) gender, (R) religion, (E) education, (S) socio-economic status (SES), and (S) social capital). The most frequently included equity considerations in smart city health interventions were place of residence, SES, social capital, and personal characteristics; conversely, occupation, gender or sex, religion, race, ethnicity, culture, language, and education characteristics were comparatively less featured in such interventions. Overall, it appears that most of intervention evaluations assessed in this review are still in the early testing phases, and thus did not include or feature robust evaluative designs or commercially available technologies
doi:10.3390/ijerph17072325 pmid:32235594 fatcat:pikaundsz5gs3lowoif6lcicgi