Functional diversity of small nucleolar RNAs

2019 Nucleic Acids Research  
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are short non-protein-coding RNAs with a long-recognized role in tuning ribosomal and spliceosomal function by guiding ribose methylation and pseudouridylation at targeted nucleotide residues of ribosomal and small nuclear RNAs, respectively. SnoRNAs are increasingly being implicated in regulation of new types of post-transcriptional processes, for example rRNA acetylation, modulation of splicing patterns, control of mRNA abundance and translational efficiency, or
more » ... they themselves are processed to shorter stable RNA species that seem to be the principal or alternative bioactive isoform. Intriguingly, some display unusual cellular localization under exogenous stimuli, or tissue-specific distribution. Here, we discuss the new and unforeseen roles attributed to snoRNAs, focusing on the presumed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, we review the experimental approaches to study snoRNA function, including high resolution RNA:protein and RNA:RNA interaction mapping, techniques for analyzing modifications on targeted RNAs, and cellular and animal models used in snoRNA biology research.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkz1140 pmid:31828325 pmcid:PMC7038934 fatcat:tb2srl263vg3ll2uvslrr2cx24