Higher functional connectivity between prefrontal regions and the dorsal attention network predicts absence of renewal
Behavioural Brain Research
Renewal describes the recovery of an extinguished response when extinction and recall contexts differ, demonstrating the context-dependency of extinction. The unexpected outcome change during extinction presumably directs attention to the context and promotes renewal. Accordingly, studies show that context processing for renewal is modulated by salience of and attention to context. Besides context-processing hippocampus, renewal involves ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and
... nferior frontal gyrus, which mediate response processing. Since showing renewal is a trait-like processing tendency, individuals with and without renewal may differ in resting-state functional connectivity of prefrontal regions with networks mediating attentional and salience processing. We analyzed resting-state functional MRI data from healthy participants (n = 70) of a non-fear-related contextual extinction task particularly suited for investigation of renewal. Participants without renewal exhibited significantly higher functional connectivity between prefrontal regions and bilateral intraparietal sulcus of the dorsal attention network. Functional connectivity between these regions correlated negatively with renewal level. Only in participants with renewal, the renewal level correlated positively with connectivity between left frontal eye field and several prefrontal regions. In contrast, functional connectivity of prefrontal regions with the salience network did not differ between groups. The results deliver first-time evidence for differences in resting-state functional connectivity between participants with and without renewal in non-fear-related extinction. Intraparietal-sulcus-guided top-down attentional control appears more strongly related to prefrontal activity in participants without renewal, and thus may have a role in their default processing mode of focusing on the stimulus and disregarding the context.