Optimization of the Adsorption/Desorption Contribution from Metal-Organic-Heat-Carrier Nanoparticles in Waste Heat Recovery Applications: R245fa/MIL101 in Organic Rankine Cycles

Giovanna Cavazzini, Serena Bari
2022 Energies  
The efficient recovery of low temperature waste heat, representing from 25% up to 55% of the energy losses in industrial processes, still remains a challenge and even Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) experience a strong efficiency decay in such a low temperature operating range (T < 150 °C). In similar heat transfer processes, several nanofluids have been proposed as a solution for increasing heat transfer efficiency, but they produced only moderate enhancements of the heat transfer efficiency in
more » ... omparison with pure fluids. This paper aims at numerically assessing the potential gain in efficiency deriving from the application of an unconventional type of nanoparticles, the metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs), in the ORC field. In comparison with standard nanoparticles, these MOHCs make it possible to extract additional heat from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, with a theoretically high potential for boosting the heat transfer capacity of ORC systems. In this paper a numerical model was developed and customized for considering the adsorption/desorption processes of the pure fluid R245fa (pentafluoropropane) combined with a crystal structure for porous chromium terephthalate (MIL101). The R245fa/MIL101 nanofluid behavior was experimentally characterized, defining proper semi-emipirical correlations. Then, an optimization procedure was developed, combining the numerical model with a PSO algorithm, to optimize the thermodynamic conditions in the ORC so as to maximize the contribution of desorption/absorption processes. The results confirm the increase in net power output (+2.9% for 100 °C) and in expander efficiency (+2.4% for 100 °C) at very low heat source temperature. The relevance of tuning the operating cycle and the nanofluid properties is also demonstrated.
doi:10.3390/en15031138 fatcat:4czusemn4bfm7fz6cfixrqhrhm