Research on Cracked Conditions in Nickel Chrome Alloy Ni50Cr33W4.5Mo2.8TiAlNb, Obtained by Direct Laser Deposition
Nowadays, additive manufacturing (AM) is a powerful way to make complex-shaped components for airspace engineering from nickel-based superalloys. So, while nickel-based superalloys could easily be we L-DED in sheet-metal thicknesses, they suffered from strain-age cracking and solidification during AM or in the post-weld aging treatment. This is attributed to the fact that besides the limitation of γ′- phase forming elements (Al and Ti), as they form by AM very rapidly and reduce ductility, the
... ajority of the superalloys contain carbide-forming elements such as Cr, Mo, and W. The precipitation of carbides, which is very effective in strengthening, develops cracks in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) during AM. The difference in isochoric heat capacities and the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) at the phase boundary leads to the appearance of dangerous local destruction energy. If the area of the interfacial interface is sufficiently extended, then the accumulation of this energy reaches a level sufficient for a crack formation. We have proposed a crack initiation criterion (CIC) for assessing the dangerous level of fracture energy. The CIC was derived from an estimate of the local energy balance from the heat transfer equation for the two-phase area. Practical approbation of the criterion was carried out after L-DED of samples from Ni50Cr33W4.5Mo2.8TiAlNb (EP648) alloy powder with an increased carbon content based on the study of the chemical composition near the crack formed during solidification. Using the proposed criterion provides an opportunity to give the rank to carbide-forming elements according to the degree of their influence on the fracture energy. Thus, the release of aluminum carbide turned out to be 5.48 times more dangerous than the release of titanium carbide and more than 5 times more dangerous than the release of tungsten carbide and molybdenum.