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The limited energy supply of wireless sensor networks poses a great challenge for the deployment of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we focus on energy-efficient coverage with distributed particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. First, the energy-efficient coverage problem is formulated with sensing coverage and energy consumption models. We consider the network composed of stationary and mobile nodes. Second, coverage and energy metrics are presented to evaluate the coveragedoi:10.3390/s7050628 fatcat:epkjshqxyfhgpaywlbjl7pagve