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Figure 1. Mr. T.V. Netshivhale rehearsing the Sundani Primary School Tshikona Group, Limpopo Province. Photo by Laina Gumboreshumba. Figure 2. Luimbo lwa tshikona: the tshikona song. Th e encircled form number 12 indicates the tshikona song has a 12 pulse cycle. Th is is a transcription of the seven nanga reedpipe parts and of the timekeeper thungwa, one of the three drums played in performance of tshikona. Th ungwa beats are shown by the heavier pulse lines. Th e average tempo of thungwa isdoi:10.21504/amj.v9i3.1909 fatcat:6z4breclejcrplg63fpzsecpmu