Deep Learning based on hematoxylin-eosin staining outperforms immunohistochemistry in predicting molecular subtypes of gastric adenocarcinoma

Nadine Flinner, Steffen Gretser, Alexander Quaas, Katrin Bankov, Alexander Stoll, Lara E Heckmann, Robin S Mayer, Claudia Doering, Melanie C Demes, Reinhard Buettner, Josef Rueschoff, Peter J Wild
In gastric cancer (GC), there are four molecular subclasses that indicate whether patients respond to chemotherapy or immunotherapy, according to the TCGA. In clinical practice, however, not every patient undergoes molecular testing. Many laboratories have used well-implemented in situ techniques (IHC and EBER-ISH) to determine the subclasses in their cohorts. Although multiple stains are used, we show that a staining approach is unable to correctly discriminate all subclasses. As an
more » ... , we trained an ensemble convolutional neuronal network using bagging that can predict the molecular subclass directly from hematoxylin-eosin histology. We also identified patients with predicted intra-tumoral heterogeneity or with features from multiple subclasses, which challenges the postulated TCGA-based decision tree for GC subtyping. In the future, Deep Learning may enable targeted testing for molecular subtypes and targeted therapy for a broader group of GC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1002/path.5879 pmid:35119111 fatcat:4obx5rfa4jg2hnfjxfli775k6y