Iatrogenic opioid dependence is endemic and legal: Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) with electrotherapy a paradigm shift in pain treatment programs

Kenneth Blum, David Han, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Gary Reinl, Nicholas DiNubile, Margaret A. Madigan, Anish Bajaj, Bernard William Downs, John Giordano, Wayne Westcott, Leonard Smith, Eric R. Braverman (+6 others)
2013 Health (Irvine, Calif.)  
The mounting endemic of prescription iatrogenic opioid dependence in pain patients provoked this treatise about an alternative method that can be used to treat pain, improve function and reduce the risk of opioid dependence. It is Wave ® device. The primary effect of the H-Wave ® device is stimulation (HWDS) of small diameter fibers of "red-slow-twitch" skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of action of HWDS have been investigated in both animal and human studies. They include edema reduction, induction
more » ... f nitric oxide dependent augmented microcirculation and angiogenesis, small muscle contraction that eliminates trans-capillary fluid shifts, reducing the painful effects of tetanizing fatigue and gradual loading of healing injured muscle tissue that helps repair and remodeling. A recent metaanalysis found a moderate-to-strong-positive effect of the HWDS in providing pain relief, reducing the requirement for pain medication, with the most robust effect being increased functionality. We are proposing that GARS can be used to identify those at risk of developing opioid dependence and that the need for opioid analgesia can be reduced by use of this electro therapeutic alternative to opioid analgesia in the treatment of pain and injuries.
doi:10.4236/health.2013.511a1004 fatcat:jnl3mqkdzbcyjagibpqgbtfkee