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Iatrogenic opioid dependence is endemic and legal: Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) with electrotherapy a paradigm shift in pain treatment programs
Health (Irvine, Calif.)
The mounting endemic of prescription iatrogenic opioid dependence in pain patients provoked this treatise about an alternative method that can be used to treat pain, improve function and reduce the risk of opioid dependence. It is Wave ® device. The primary effect of the H-Wave ® device is stimulation (HWDS) of small diameter fibers of "red-slow-twitch" skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of action of HWDS have been investigated in both animal and human studies. They include edema reduction, inductiondoi:10.4236/health.2013.511a1004 fatcat:jnl3mqkdzbcyjagibpqgbtfkee