The classification of animals based on the principle of cephalization; Part III, Classification of herbivores

J. D. Dana
1864 American Journal of Science  
Under the order of Megasthenes,' the tribe of Quadrumanes, as stated on p. 334, Art. I, is properly lzypertypic, that of Carnivores 8uperior typical, that of Herbivores injenor typical, and that of Mutilates (or Cetaceans) hypofypic. 1. Di'slinctt'on8 between Herbiv01'es and the t7-ibcs next 8Upe7·t·or and infen'or. A. Herbivores show their inferiority to Carnivores, or the superior typical group of megasthenic Mammals, on the basis of the principle of cephalization, in the following ways: (1.)
more » ... ollowing ways: (1.) In the fore-limbs being defunctionated of the power of prehension and reduced to simple locomotive organs. (2.) In the fore-limbs being not as much st'iperior to the hindlimbs in strength as in the Carnivores, and even inferior to the hind-limbs in some species,-Herbivores, being less strongly pl'Osthentc than Carnivores, and the species of the larger and most characteristic group being meiastlzenic. (3.) In the structure being strongJyamplificate.-Taking the Lion as the standard of size for the highest grade of life among typical Megasthenes, the Elephant-certninly inferior in type, and, therefore, also in degree or quality of systemic forceexhibits inferiority likewise in its· great bulk i it is a marked example of a gro88-amplijicate structure. Hogs and the related species are no less gross-amplificate, but on a feebler life-system. Again, the Horse and also all Ruminants are long-ampli.ficate, as appears strikingly in their lengthened limbs, especially the extremities of the limbs, and, also, in the neck and body. (4.) In the head being prolonged or amplificate.-Even the Elephant is here no exception i for the great tusks and trunk correspond to an elongation of the head extremity, their development being at the expense of the jaws and of part of the teeth. In the Horse, the facial part of the skull is four times as long as the cranial portion. (See p. 165.) ~ In order that the position of Herbivores, as recognized by the writer, may be clearly undersfoO'tl by the reader, I repeat here the arrangement of the higher divisions of MammalS, proposed in the number of this Journnl for January, 186S, (voL xxxv, p. 65), presenting the tribes of Megasthenes and Microsthenes, as before, in parallel columns in order to exhibit their parallel relations.
doi:10.2475/ajs.s2-37.110.157 fatcat:7heg2heftrdffev6yjl5262orm