Undiagnosed depression, persistent depressive symptoms and seeking mental health care: analysis of immigrant and non-immigrant participants of the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
AbstractAimsEarly diagnosis and treatment of depression are associated with better prognosis. We used baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2012–2015; ages 45–85 years) to examine differences in prevalence and predictors of undiagnosed depression (UD) between immigrants and non-immigrants at baseline and persistent and/or emerging depressive symptoms (DS) 18 months later. At this second time point, we also examined if a mental health care professional (MHCP) had been
... CP) had been consulted.MethodsWe excluded individuals with any prior mood disorder and/or current anti-depressive medication use at baseline. UD was defined as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10 score ⩾10. DS at 18 months were defined as Kessler 10 score ⩾19. The associations of interest were examined in multivariate logistic regression models.ResultsOur study included 4382 immigrants and 18 620 non-immigrants. The mean age (standard deviation) in immigrants was 63 (10.3) yearsv.65 (10.7) years in non-immigrants and 52.1%v.57.1% were male. Among immigrants, 12.2% had UD at baseline of whom 34.2% had persistent DS 18 months laterv.10.6% and 31.4%, respectively, among non-immigrants. Female immigrants were more likely to have UD than female non-immigrants (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.25–1.80) but no difference observed for men. The risk of persistent DS and consulting an MHCP at 18 months did not differ between immigrants and non-immigrants.ConclusionsFemale immigrants may particularly benefit from depression screening. Seeking mental health care in the context of DS should be encouraged.