Guest Editors Pertti Saariluoma

J References Jones, M Jones
2005 An Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments   unpublished
Human Technology is an interdisciplinary, scholarly journal that presents innovative, peer-reviewed articles exploring the issues and challenges surrounding human-technology interaction and the human role in all areas of our ICT-infused societies. Human Technology is published by the Agora Center, University of Jyväskylä and distributed without a charge online. Saariluoma 2 With the dawn of the Internet a bit more than a decade ago, and its exponential growth, the number of distribution
more » ... has opened for the average person; various new technologies provide the access for just about anyone to express himself or herself, with little censure or direction from the traditional distribution gatekeepers. As long as one has constructed the necessary preconditions for creativity (the hardware, software, and connectivity needed for access to the Internet, access to raw materials-video, digital animation tools, etc.-and access to editing tools, to name a few), the possibilities are almost limitless. Certainly creative expression does not necessarily equal creativity. Looking at the thousands of new postings each day to YouTube demonstrates this fact. However, millions of people go to YouTube and similar distribution services regularly because they are seeking entertainment, or perhaps inspiration. In many ways, watching the poor production qualities of most YouTube videos is like watching the early days of the cinema, much of which has been forgotten. But the creative talents of those early cinematic years-the Buster Keatons and the Charlie Chaplins-were easy to identify and their productions have survived the test of time. It would not be surprising, then, that the works of the Keatons and Chaplins of the 21 st century-actors and producers from around the world with imaginative talent and innovative minds-are available now somewhere on the Internet, amid the millions of miscellaneous videos of newsy events, family happenings, shameless self-promotions, and pirated broadcasts. But the truly creative gems, unlike the movie studio distributions in past decades, are available for anyone to seek and see, if you have access to the technology. The new reality in distribution exists not only for videos but also for myriad other creative outputs, such as music, writing, artwork, and philosophical thought. Digital libraries and downloadable music have become a common part of ICT world (e.g. Jones & Jones, 2006; Witten, 2006), with millions of people turning to the Internet as their first source of information and entertainment. Indeed, as the technologies fuel the creative expression of potentially billions of people around the world, these same technologies fuel the search for personal visions of what constitutes entertainment-and so these new technologies provide a space for the meeting of the entertaining and the entertained. Certainly this unprecedented era of personal freedom of expression and access raises social concern and, at times, animated discussion regarding issues such as personal privacy, child protection, and intellectual property rights, to name a few. Meanwhile, various fields engage in the never-ending debate regarding what is art, what is creativity or innovation, and who decides such matters. And amid this all, the creation and distribution of individuals' personal expression continues. It is clear that technological advances, enabled by the humanistic philosophies, have laid the foundation for distribution of creative expression (as well as a lot of junk) at levels unmatched in human history. What does this mean for societies, for individual creativity, for future forms of creative expression? We can see that, in the last 50 years, the discourses about technology and humanismthose two disciplines explicitly, but certainly among other scientific fields as well-has gradually melded into a new discourse, new ways of thinking and imagining. It challenges the scholars in these fields to different perspectives, and to the evolving discourses about and definitions of their fields, and more closely tied the research with human implementation. It makes room for revolutionary concepts and activities-some of which can't even be imagined today. But most importantly, this interdisciplinary interaction between sciencesbetween emphasis on technology and emphasis on humanity-makes possible creativity on Making It Possible 3 many levels and for many people. And, in the end, the ideals of humanism-that is, emphasis on human values and perhaps a deeper existence-are the winners. The age of mechanical reproduction had profound effects on the creation, distribution, and perception of art and other cultural forms (Benjamin, 1992) . As the age of digital reproduction progresses, change is becoming equally, if not more, radical. The speed and scale of technological development presents a series of complex challenges for research. This has become evident in human-computer interaction (HCI), a field of study that emerged from "man-machine studies" (Dix, Finlay, Abowd, & Beale, 1998). As well as acknowledging the existence of women, the new title reflected the shift from the mechanical to the digital age; but, in the last 5 years, there have been such major changes in the study of HCI that this title now seems dated. When computers were largely confined to the workplace, it was clear that interacting with them was a specialized activity that necessitated study. Computing technology is now a part of the way we cook, clean, work, communicate, and play; it is, as the title of this journal declares, a human technology. HCI as a title seems at once too narrow and too broad. It includes interaction with microwaves, dishwashers, and credit cards but also the creation of image, music, and text. Emerging technologies offer new possibilities for the creation and delivery of artworks, new modes of operation within artistic communities, alternatives to the traditional view of galleries, and new means of appreciating older cultural forms. Culture and creativity are, of course, inextricably tied to technological developments. The rock paintings of the Stone Age would not have been possible without tools, like charcoal, for Light, A. (2001). Representing the producer: The use of semiotic analysis to inform the design of interactive components in networked media. Abstract: The last decade has witnessed the emergence and aesthetic maturation of amateur multimedia on an unprecedented scale, from video podcasts to machinima, and Flash animations to user-created metaverses. Today, especially in academic circles, this pop culture phenomenon is little recognized and even less understood. This paper explores creativity in amateur multimedia using three theorizations of creativity-those of HCI, postructuralism, and technological determinism. These theorizations frame a semiotic analysis of numerous commonly used multimedia authoring platforms, which demonstrates a deep convergence of multimedia authoring tool strategies that collectively project a conceptualization and practice of digital creativity. This conceptualization of digital creativity in authoring tools is then compared with hundreds of amateur-created artifacts. These analyses reveal relationships among emerging amateur multimedia aesthetics, common software authoring tools, and the three theorizations of creativity discussed. Abstract: Integrationism is a post-structuralist theory of language and communication. The theory has been applied to a groundbreaking analysis of writing as a form of communication where writing is teased apart from speech and realigned with spatial configurations in general. Although it has many practical applications, this view can be extremely difficult to comprehend when expressed as a very specific form of writing, that is, as written words on paper. A solution to this problem is offered by the creative interaction design of two digital artworks, Postcard From Tunis and Postcards From Writing. The works are interactive multimedia pieces that creatively express the integrationist theory of writing and extend it into the transformations of writing that are possible in the human-computer interface. More generally, the unique rollover-based interfaces of these works both express the integrationist theory of communication and suggest that it is necessary in order to explain the creation of communicative signs that they demonstrate are possible. Abstract: A growing awareness exists of the possibilities of architectural research adopting working methods used by artists. Many artists have adapted ethnographic methodologies to map site specificity and issues related to community and sociospatial practices. This paper draws on related examples of art practice to formulate a specific research strategy: ethnographic intervention. Ethnographic intervention has three characteristics: (a) ethnographic mapping of spatial practices on site, (b) the possibility of a horizontal replication of the study, and (c) an intervention protocol. We define ethnographic mapping as a critical process directed towards a specific cultural, social, or architectural situation. This involves representing the situation through observing, documenting, videorecording, and photography. We explore the necessity of horizontal replication for producing reliable studies. Finally, we discuss the development of a multi-stage intervention protocol as a creative and flexible instrument, involving design and preparation, data collection, interpretation, and narration. Three case studies illustrate how this strategy has been conceived, applied, and developed at architectural sites. The article concludes with a discussion of the outcomes, usefulness, and possible applications of this strategy in other disciplines. Abstract: This paper deals with the open source method practiced within the new media art context. I present a case study on an international festival, PixelACHE 2005, which was organized by and for new media artists and served as a platform for demonstrations of new media projects and as a meeting place for experimental new media artists. In this article I discuss how new media artists adapted the open source ideology. Open source is seen both as a more liberal method of distribution and as an open joint creative process. I was particularly interested in what kind of motives the new media artists had for taking part in the PixelACHE festival and the joint artistic creative process. In my analysis, I found four different groups that have diverse motives for participating in open source art projects. One group contains the key persons who use the open source network as an important reference in their professional image. Members of the second and third group are new media artists who earn their main income in either the public or corporate sector and use open source projects as a learning platform. The fourth group comprises young enthusiasts who are seeking jobs and professional networking opportunities in the open source network.