The HMA-LMA Dichotomy Revisited: an Electron Microscopical Survey of 56 Sponge Species

Volker Gloeckner, Markus Wehrl, Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Christine Gernert, Peter Schupp, Joseph R. Pawlik, Niels L. Lindquist, Dirk Erpenbeck, Gert Wörheide, Ute Hentschel
2014 The Biological Bulletin  
The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as
more » ... g to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses.
doi:10.1086/bblv227n1p78 pmid:25216505 fatcat:uoijb5drxre6pbrwlxxf7ple6e