Genomic Insights into the Demographic History of Southern Chinese [article]

Xiufeng Huang, Zi-Yang Xia, Xiaoyun Bin, Guanglin He, Jianxin Guo, Chaowen Lin, Lianfei Yin, Jing Zhao, Zhuofei Ma, Fuwei Ma, Yingxiang Li, Rong Hu (+2 others)
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Southern China is the birthplace of rice-cultivating agriculture, different language families, and human migrations that facilitated these cultural diffusions. The fine-scale demographic history in situ, however, remains unclear. To comprehensively cover the genetic diversity in East and Southeast Asia, we generated genome-wide SNP data from 211 present-day Southern Chinese and co-analyzed them with more than 1,200 ancient and modern genomes. We discover that the previously described Southern
more » ... st Asian or Yangtze River Farmer lineage is monophyletic but not homogeneous, comprising four regionally differentiated sub-ancestries. These ancestries are respectively responsible for the transmission of Austronesian, Kra-Dai, Hmong-Mien, and Austroasiatic languages and their original homelands successively distributed from East to West in Southern China. Multiple phylogenetic analyses support that the earliest living branching among East Asian-related populations is First Americans (~27,700 BP), followed by the pre-LGM differentiation between Northern and Southern East Asians (~23,400 BP) and the pre-Neolithic split between Coastal and Inland Southern East Asians (~16,400 BP). In North China, distinct coastal and inland routes of south-to-north gene flow had established by the Holocene, and further migration and admixture formed the genetic profile of Sinitic speakers by ~4,000 BP. Four subsequent massive migrations finalized the complete genetic structure of present-day Southern Chinese. First, a southward Sinitic migration and the admixture with Kra-Dai speakers formed the Sinitic Cline. Second, a bi-directional admixture between Hmong-Mien and Kra-Dai speakers gave rise to the Hmong-Mien Cline in the interior of South China between ~2,000 and ~1,000 BP. Third, a southwestward migration of Kra-Dai speakers in recent ~2,000 years impacted the genetic profile for the majority of Mainland Southeast Asians. Finally, an admixture between Tibeto-Burman incomers and indigenous Austroasiatic speakers formed the Tibeto-Burman speakers in Southeast Asia by ~2,000 BP.
doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.373225 fatcat:d6xqnrgjsnabzakjs7dtyhqydm