A Danish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14): Translation and cross-cultural adaptation
Methods The English version of OHIP-14 was translated into Danish following a standard protocol of cross-cultural adaptation. Stages I -IV: translation phase to eventually generate an "OHIP-14-DK" pre-nal version. Stage V: pre-testing phase. A random sample of 22 orthodontic patients (mean age 24.7 years, SD ±14.8; 14 females, 8 males) were selected at Aarhus University, Section of orthodontics, Denmark. All patients self-completed the OHIP-14-DK and were thereafter interviewed. To measure
... ed. To measure reliability, all patients completed the same questionnaire again after 1-2 weeks interval. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coe cients, Spearman's correlation coe cient, and ICC. Results The initial and back translations were very similar: OHIP-14-DK proved to have a good level of equivalence with no errors or deviations in the translation, relevant to orthodontic patients, tting the Danish culture, and understood by individuals as young as 12 years old. The distribution of responses veri ed that all questions relate to their domains. Therefore, no nal adjustments were required for the tested version. Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.75-0.84 indicating an adequate to good reliability. Spearman's correlation coe cient was 0.77 for the OHIP total score. The obtained ICC value for the mean rating was 0.91 (95% con dence interval: 0.78-0.96). Conclusions OHIP-14-DK ts the Danish culture, applicable among adolescents and adults undergoing orthodontic treatment in Denmark. Proved to be face and content valid with good internal consistency, excellent reliability, and strong stability. Study registration case no.