Electric measurements of charged sprays emitted by cone-jets

2002 Journal of Fluid Mechanics  
We use time-of-flight and energy analysis techniques to measure in a vacuum the charge, specific charge and stopping potential of primary and satellite droplets generated by electrosprays of tributyl phosphate solutions. This information, of interest in itself, is subsequently analysed to obtain the following relevant parameters of the jet emanating from the Taylor cone: the velocity of the fluid at the breakup point, the voltage difference between the liquid cone and jet breakup location, and
more » ... akup location, and the most probable wavelength for varicose breakup. A large fraction of the electrospray needle voltage is used to accelerate the jet. Indeed, for the solutions of lowest electrical conductivities studied here, the voltage difference between electrospray needle and jet breakup location becomes approximately 90% of the needle voltage. In addition, the pressure of the jet fluid at the breakup point is negligible compared to its specific kinetic energy. The specific charge distribution function of the main droplets produced in the varicose breakup is remarkably narrow. Hence, the limiting and commonly accepted case of varicose breakup at constant electric potential is not consistent with this experimental observation. On the other hand, a scenario in which the electric charge is bound to the jet surface seems to be a good approximation to simulate the effect of charge on capillary breakup. It is also found that the effect of viscosity on the formation of droplets is paramount in electrosprays of moderate and high electrical conductivity. We expect that these measurements will guide the analytical modelling of cone-jets.
doi:10.1017/s002211200200798x fatcat:hnoqlpbch5dvjft6m5lk4pnv4i