Changes in bone mineral density at 3 years in postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole and risedronate in the IBIS-II bone substudy: an international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
Ivana Sestak, Shalini Singh, Jack Cuzick, Glen M Blake, Rajesh Patel, Fatma Gossiel, Rob Coleman, Mitch Dowsett, John F Forbes, Anthony Howell, Richard Eastell
The Lancet Oncology
Aromatase inhibitors prevent breast cancer in postmenopausal women at high risk of the disease but are associated with accelerated bone loss. We assessed eff ectiveness of oral risedronate for prevention of reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) after 3 years of follow-up in a subset of patients in the IBIS-II trial. Methods The double-blind IBIS-II trial recruited 3864 healthy, postmenopausal women at increased risk of breast cancer and randomly allocated them oral anastrozole (1 mg/day) or
... tched placebo. 1410 (36%) postmenopausal women were then enrolled in a bone substudy and stratifi ed at baseline according to their lowest baseline T score at spine or femoral neck (stratum I: T score at least -1·0; stratum II: T score at least -2·5 but less than -1·0; stratum III: T score less than -2·5 but greater than -4·0). Women in stratum I were monitored only; women in stratum III were all given risedronate (35 mg/week). Women in stratum II were randomly assigned (1:1) to risedronate (35 mg/week) or matched placebo by use of a block randomisation schedule via a web-based programme. The primary outcome of this per-protocol analysis (done with all women with a baseline and 3 year DXA assessment) was the eff ect of risedronate versus placebo for osteopenic women in stratum II randomly allocated to anastrozole (1 mg/day). Secondary outcomes included eff ect of anastrozole (1 mg/day) on BMD in women not receiving risedronate (strata I and II) and in osteoporotic women who were all treated with risedronate (stratum III). The trial is ongoing, but no longer recruiting. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN31488319. Findings Between Feb 2, 2003, and Sept 30, 2010, 150 (58%) of 260 women in stratum II who had been randomly allocated to anastrozole and either risedronate or placebo had baseline and 3 year assessments. At the lumbar spine, 3 year mean BMD change for the 77 women receiving anastrozole/risedronate was 1·1% (95% CI 0·2 to 2·1) versus -2·6% (-4·0 to -1·3) for the 73 women receiving anastrozole/placebo (p<0·0001). For the total hip, 3 year mean BMD change for women receiving anastrozole/risedronate was -0·7% (-1·6 to 0·2) versus -3·5% (-4·6 to -2·3) for women receiving anastrozole/placebo (p=0·0001). 652 (65%) of 1008 women in strata I and II who were not randomly allocated to risedronate had both baseline and 3 year assessments. Women not receiving risedronate in stratum I and II who received anastrozole (310 women) had a signifi cant BMD decrease after 3 years of follow-up compared with women who received placebo (342 women) at the lumbar spine (-4·0% [-4·5 to -3·4] vs -1·2% [-1·7 to -0·7], p<0·0001) and total hip (-4·0% [-4·4 to -3·6] vs -1·8% [-2·1 to -1·4], p<0·0001). 106 (79%) of 149 women in stratum III had a baseline and a 3 year assessment. The 46 women allocated to anastrozole had a modest BMD increase of 1·2% (-0·1 to 2·6) at the spine compared with a 3·9% (2·6 to 5·2) increase for the 60 women allocated to placebo (p=0·006). For the total hip, a small 0·3% (-0·9 to 1·5) increase was noted for women allocated anastrozole compared with a 1·5% (0·5 to 2·5) increase for women allocated placebo, but the diff erence was not signifi cant (p=0·12). The most common adverse event reported was arthralgia (stratum I: 94 placebo and 114 anastrozole; stratum II: 39 placebo/placebo, 25 placebo/risedronate, 34 anastrozole/placebo, and 34 anastrozole/risedronate; stratum III: 21 placebo/risedronate, 17 anastrozole/risedronate). Other adverse events included hot fl ushes, alopecia, abdominal pain, and back pain. Interpretation Risedronate counterbalances the eff ect of anastrozole-induced bone loss in osteopenic and osteoporotic women and might be off ered in combination with anastrozole treatment to provide an improved risk-benefi t profi le.