INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF PESTS AND DISEASES ATTACKING HONEY BEE COLONIES
Menoufia Journal of Plant Protection
This study was carried out in the apiary of Plant Protection Research Institute of the Sharkia Branch, which was carried out during the period of 2015-2018. In this study, the most important pests and diseases attacking honey bee colonies were recorded to determine the suitable time to control these pests. The most important pests were Vespa orientalis and Varroa destructor, while the most important diseases were Nosema apis and the European foul brood. The obtained results showed that the
... howed that the active period of Vespa orientalis, by counting the number of capture insects using food traps, was recorded from March to December. The highest number of queens was recorded at May as 42.7 insect /trap/ month. Also, the highest number of workers was recorded at October as 270 insect / trap / month, followed by November as 214.3 insect /trap, and September month recorded 133 insect /trap. The highest total population of hornet was recorded at November 388.3 insect / trap / month, followed by October 283 and September 133.0 insect /trap. The total number of captures insects were 991.4 along 2015 year. The obtained results indicated that the highest captured workers was recorded with the food attractant, honey bee solution as 66.5 insect / trap / week, followed by pollen substitutes recording 56 insect / trap, followed by fermented sugar solution recording 48 insect / trap and sugar solution recorded 40 insect / trap, while tuna fish recorded 36 insect / trap. Pollen substitutes recorded the highest efficiency in hunting queens as 80 queen / trap, followed by honey bee solution as 54.8, followed by fermented sugar solution as 40.9, while sugar solution and tuna recorded 25.9 & 16.3 queen / trap. Application of three methods of hornet control (suspension of traps + regular feeding + narrowing the hive entrance allowing bees to enter without the Hornet) at the same time revealed that the percentage of hive losses by hornet attack was 6.7% , compared to the control hives resulting 80% loss of the hives. The application of Diazinon with the bait in hornet nests recorded the highest reduction in hornets in the nest reaching 95.25%. Formic acid, recorded the highest rate of Varroa reduction as 86.2%, followed by camphor powder recording 77.5%, followed by Artemisia 70.9%, while sugar dust recorded 53.1% reduction. Moreover, smoke of camphor leaves recorded the highest reduction rate of varroa as 77.32%, followed by clove as 60.97%. The use of flagyl reduced the percentage number of nosema spores by 74.12% , while Artemisia extract reduced nosema by 63.5%. Adding Tiramycine to sugar syrup recorded 91% reduction in European foul brood, compared with Tiramycine with sugar dust recording 83.8% reduction .