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This paper shows why states, acting in their own self-interest, may create informational asymmetries that lead to war. In our models, two actors with no private information invest in military capacity before engaging in crisis bargaining. If bargaining fails, the states go to war, and the payoffs of a war depend on the two states' military capacities. We examine a large class of models and show that states have incentives to keep each other guessing about their exact levels of military capacitydoi:10.1561/100.00008018 fatcat:uecsn5dzfzae7ooi6wct6pvw64