Structural determination of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 protein interactions with human immunoglobulin G using integrative structural biology [article]

Hamed Khakzad, Lotta Happonen, Yasaman Karami, Michael Nilges, Guy Tran Van Nhieu, Johan Malmström, Lars Malmstroem
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus; GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for mild to severe, life-threatening infections. GAS expresses a wide range of virulence factors, including the M family proteins. The M proteins allow the bacteria to evade parts of the human immune defenses by triggering the formation of a dense coat of plasma proteins surrounding the bacteria, including IgGs. However, the molecular level details of the M1-IgG interaction have remained unclear.
more » ... we characterized the structure and dynamics of this interaction interface in human plasma on the surface of live bacteria using integrative structural biology, combining cross-linking mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the primary interaction is formed between the S-domain of M1 and the conserved IgG Fc-domain. In addition, we show evidence for a so far uncharacterized interaction between the A-domain and the IgG Fc-domain. Both these interactions mimic the protein G-IgG interface of group C and G streptococcus. These findings underline a conserved scavenging mechanism used by GAS surface proteins that block the IgG-receptor (FcγR) to inhibit phagocytic killing. We additionally show that we can capture Fab-bound IgGs in a complex background and identify the specific M1 epitopes targeted on live bacteria. Our results elucidate the M1-IgG interaction network involved in inhibition of phagocytosis and reveal important M1 peptides that can be further investigated as future vaccine targets.
doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.213652 fatcat:ur53hznyinbhfkxg3icqdmglie