Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

Jackson M. Muema, Steven G. Nyanjom, James M. Mutunga, Sospeter N. Njeru, Joel L. Bargul, J Joe Hull
<span title="2017-03-16">2017</span> <i title="Public Library of Science (PLoS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">PLoS ONE</a> </i> &nbsp;
Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to
more &raquo; ... avel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4) to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p < 0.001). Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), our findings show that PA-treated larvae exhibited significant repression of AgamJHAMT (p < 0.001), AgamILP1 (p < 0.001) and AgamCYP6M2 (p < 0.001) with upregulation of Hsp70 (p < 0.001). Females exposed as larvae demonstrated down-regulation of AgamVg (p = 0.03), AgamILP1 (p = 0.009), AgamCYP6M2 (p = 0.05) and AgamJ-HAMT (p = 0.02). Our findings support that C. sinensis proanthocyanidins affect important PLOS ONE | https://doi.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173564</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:28301607</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmcid:PMC5354366</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:4lab277gjfayhok4tp2imudhqa</a> </span>
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