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We consider Choiceless Polynomial Time ( e CPT), a language introduced by Blass, Gurevich and Shelah, and show that it can express a query originally constructed by Cai, Fürer and Immerman to separate fixed-point logic with counting (IFP + C) from P. This settles a question posed by Blass et al. The program we present uses sets of unbounded finite rank: we demonstrate that this is necessary by showing that the query cannot be computed by any program that has a constant bound on the rank of setsdoi:10.1016/j.entcs.2005.05.024 fatcat:au55aqwhandrlkdvekciabidke