A Multilevel Latent Growth Modelling of the Longitudinal Changes in Motiva-tion Regulations in Physical Education

Timo Jaakkola, John Wang, Sami Yli-Piipari, Jarmo Liukkonen
2015 ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine   unpublished
The purpose of this study was to examine individual-and classroom level differences in the longitudinal change in motivation-al regulations during physical education students' transition from elementary (Grade 6) across middle school (Grades 7 to 9). A sample of 757 Finnish adolescents (M = 12.71, SD = 0.23) participated in this study. Participants of the study responded to questionnaires collected six times. A multilevel latent growth modelling approach was used to analyze the data. Results
more » ... wed that motivational regulations in physical education developed at different rates during middle school. More specifically , students': (a) identified regulation increased across Grades 6 to 9; (b) amotivation increased during middle school transition from Grade 6 to 7; and (c) introjected regulation declined from Grade 8 to 9. Other motivational regulations remained stable across time. The changes in amotivation and introjected regulation were largely due to individual factors, whereas the changes in identified regulation were due to environmental factors.