Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

J. Laštovička, D. Pancheva, D. Altadill, E. A. Benediktov, J. Boška, J. Bremer, M. Dick, K. Igarashi, P. Mlch, B. A. de la Morena, Z. T. Rapoport, V. A. Vyakhirev (+3 others)
1999 Annales Geophysicae  
et al.. Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns. Abstract. The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October±30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons
more » ... t-term comparisons inside the interval Octo-ber±November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere (h = 80±100 km) at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/ MAHRSI experiment (4±12 November, 1994) was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and"meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The eects of both solar/ geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well"meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar in¯uence. In summer, solar in¯uence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak'm eteorological" in¯uence, but the overall solar/mete-orological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we ®nd the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local eects evidently dominate.
doi:10.1007/s005850050830 fatcat:67ulv7yxmnf6toen2rhbjlohdu