Trends and Seasonal Patterns in the Composition and Energy Content of Waste from three Ukrainian City Districts: The Influence of Commercial and Residential Areas
International Journal of Energy Engineering
The volume and composition of Ukraine's municipal solid waste (MSW) has changed in recent years. The percentage of paper and plastics has increased considerably; consequently, manual separation of these materials from landfills has become necessary. In 2012, thirteen million tons of MSW were collected and questions about the origin and effects of these increases have arisen. According to the EU Waste Directive, the separation and subsequent recycling of certain waste materials should be a
... s should be a priority; however, these materials can also be used to produce electricity, heat, and gas. This presents a difficult choice because Ukraine currently depends heavily on imported gas for fuel. This article studied the composition and energy content of waste collected separately from three sectors in a mid-sized town near Kiev. The first sector consisted of office buildings, the second consisted of multi-family housing units, and the third consisted of single-family housing units. The varying waste compositions identified among the sectors are relevant to potential energy-recovery planning efforts, particularly if energy-rich paper and plastics are sorted out. Multi-family housing waste was found to contain the greatest percentage of paper and plastics of the three sectors analyzed; this number has increased in recent years. Conversely, the pattern followed by single-family housing waste appeared weaker. For waste produced by the office district, average monthly wages had a strong impact on the materials that were collected. Moreover, strong seasonal effects were observed in all districts. The presented data support future waste management decisions related to waste utilization in the current and long terms. In contrast to western European countries, seasonal changes exhibited by unsorted municipal waste must be considered when making waste management decisions in Eastern Europe. The unique findings of this report may be relevant to other developing countries. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing quantity and diversity of waste generated in several East European countries require solutions that are more sustainable than landfilling or dumping in uncontrolled areas . According to national surveys of Ukraine , the generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in urban settlements increased from 303 to 346 kg/capita per year, an increase of 14%, between 2010 and 2012. On average, 76% of MSW in Ukraine is gathered by state and private garbage collection services  , and in certain Ukrainian regions, such as Cherkassy Oblast, as little as 58% of MSW is collected. The average for EU and OECD countries is 82% . A total of 4.2% of Ukraine's collected MSW is incinerated, and 3.8% of the waste is sorted and/or processed by waste treatment enterprises. Of the 13 million tons of MSW that were collected in Ukraine in 2012 , approximately 92% was disposed of at roughly 35,000 illegal dumpsites and 6700 legal landfills, together constituting more than 1000 hectares of land. Although numerous larger illegal landfills were removed before 2012 , many smaller dumpsites can still be found near villages. The separation of waste and the incineration of non-recyclables are considered balancing measures in today's society. However, according to the waste treatment hierarchy, recycling should be given priority over incineration. In the EU, this priority is enforced by Directive 2008/98/EC, which Ukraine plans to adopt as well. This directive aims to increase recycling rates, ban landfilling, and support energy recovery via the incineration of waste that cannot be recycled. of cities have started implementing waste separation. In some cases, different waste containers are offered to individual households so that residents can separate their waste on a voluntary basis. In other cases, waste compounds such as paper, plastic bottles, and metals are sorted out by hand at the landfill.